Question: What is the ruling on giving Adhan(call for prayer) and Iqāmah(call for the congregation) when praying alone at home?
I’m assuming that the questioner is asking about giving Adhan when praying at home due to the sad situation we are in today.
It is not permissible for any man in good health to leave the congregation at the mosque.
In his favour, it is an obligation upon him.
After that, if he is praying alone, not in the mosque, he is recommended to call the Adhan and the Iqāmah.
This is the view of the majority of the scholars. The view of al-Hanafiyyah, ash-Shaafi’iyyah, al-Hanabilah and al-Maalikiyyah. From the evidences they have presented saying that this action is recommended even for the one praying alone include:
Abu-Saeed al-Khudree’s رضي الله عنه narration. “(The Sahabi said to his companion) I know that you love to attend to the flock in the outskirts of Baadiyaa. When you are outside with the sheep, outside the town, give the call for prayer and give the call aloud. For verily I heard the Prophet ﷺ say,
‘There will not be a jinn, a human or any other creation who hears the call of the one who gives the call for prayer, except that they will testify for him on the Day of Judgment’.”
In the same way, another evidence that suggest that this is a recommended action is the narration which demonstrates the action of the Sahabi Anas bin Malik رضي الله عنه :
When the Sahabi came to the mosque, the prayer congregation was already over, so he gave the call for prayer and prayed with those who came with him.
أبو يعلى في مسنده (٤٣٥٥)، قال الهيثمي في مجمع الزوائد (٢/ ٤ ورجاله رجال الصحيح.
When we look at these actions, we know that this is a recommended action.
And on this topic, Al-Imām al-Allāmah Al-Albany رحمه الله said (mentionig this Hadeeth),
يعجب ربك من راعي غنم في رأس شظية بجبل يؤذن بالصلاة ويصلي فيقول الله عز وجل انظروا إلى عبدي هذا يؤذن ويقيم الصلاة يخاف مني قد غفرت لعبدي….
The Prophet ﷺ said, “Your Lord delights at a shepherd who takes care of his goats on the peak of a mountain. He gives the call to prayer and prays there. Then Allāh says ‘Look at my servant! He calls to prayer and prays. He fears Me. I have indeed forgiven his sins’.
(After this Al-Allāmah Al-Albany رحمه الله said) This Hadeeth gives evidence that it is recommended for the one praying alone to give the call for prayer. And the command to give the Adhan and the Iqāmah is mentioned in some narrations about the Sahabi who prayed wrongly.”
السلسلة الضعيفة 41.
On this chapter, al-Allāmah ibn Baaz رحمه الله said, “It is a Sunnah to give Adhan and Iqāmah. As for it being obligated, there is difference of opinion among the scholars. However, the most preferable way and the safest way is to follow the common narrations and give Adhan and Iqāmah…”